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2020-04-25 11:38   审核人:

典型自编教材

兰州交通大学交通工程实验中心

二〇二〇年四月

目 录

1.《交通工程学》... 1

2.《交通规划》... 14

3.《道路工程材料》... 24

4.《交通影响评价》... 36

5.《交通控制与仿真实验指导书》... 48

6.《汽车模拟驾驶与仿真实验指导书》... 57

7.《交通数据分析与处理实验指导书》... 68

8.《应急交通与物流系统优化》... 74

9.《交通运输与区域经济耦合分析及鲁棒优化》... 86



 

1.《交通工程学》

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2.《交通规划》

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3.《道路工程材料》

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4.《交通影响评价》

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第2章 交评涉及的专业术语与基本问题

2.1 交评涉及的专业术语

(1)城市交通

城市交通包括解决城市居民为了从事正常的生产、生活、教育、文化等活动而产生的人流、物流等一切输送活动。它既是指车辆、行人在道路上的往来,飞机、船舶的航行(动态交通);也有交通工具及行人停住(静态交通)的内涵。

广义的城市交通可划分为三个层次:

一是对外交通体系,承担一个城市与国内外其他同等级或更高等级中心城市的运输联系;

二是区域交通体系,承担中心城市与其基本腹地的运输联系;

三是市内交通体系,负责城市内部交通联系。

城市交通设施由四部分构成:

1)车辆;

2)附有交通管制设施的交通线路(包括城市道路、城市铁路、其他的轨道交通线、市内航道等,有些城市还可能因其职能、规模、自然地理等条件的差异而设有高架路、地下或水下隧道、索道等);

3)为保证1)和2)的正常运作而设立的服务设施(如汽车库、加油站、修理站等);

4)具有交通集散功能的交通枢纽(如车站、机场、港口、停车场、广场等)。

(2)土地利用

1)城市土地利用的涵义

城市土地利用就是对城市的土地进行不同层次及功能的配置。从其表象而言,城市土地利用包括:城市土地利用规模、城市土地利用的空间形态和城市土地利用的结构与比例三个方面。

2)城市土地利用强度和土地利用效率

城市土地利用强度是对城市土地配置结果的一种描述,反映了城市用地配置的差异。这种差异既可以存在于不同类型的城市用地之间,也存在于某一特定类型的用地方式之中。通常一块土地的使用频率越高、吸收的投资量越大,则这块土地的利用强度越大。正如城市中住宅用地的利用强度大于公共绿地,中心商务区大于小区级商业中心等。

(3)若干有关出行的基本概念

1)内部出行:在用地内部范围完成的出行。

2)外部出行:起点或终点(二者之一)在用地范围之外的出行。

3)新增出行:譬如新建了一个商业中心,吸引了许多顾客。有些顾客是专门来逛商店的,此外别无其他目的。这些顾客的出行就属于该商业中心的新增出行。

4)顺便出行:出行者在完成其他目的的出行时,途径某一场所而临时决定顺便光顾该场所的出行。

5)顺道出行:顺便出行中不经过任何绕道而完成的出行。

6)绕道出行:顺便出行中必须经过绕道而完成的出行。

(4)建设项目交通影响评价

这里的建设项目专指具有交通生成的永久性或临时性拟建设(新建、改建和扩建)项目。对建设项目投入使用后,新生成交通需求对周围交通系统运行的影响程度进行评价,并制定相应的对策,消减建设项目交通影响的一系列工作称为建设项目交通影响评价。

(5)出行率(trip generation rate)

建设项目单位指标(建筑面积、住宅户数、座位数等)在单位时间内所生成的交通需求,包括产生量和吸引量。

(6)新生成交通需求(new generating traffic demand by construction projects)

建设项目投入使用所生成(包括产生和吸引)的新增交通需求。新建项目,新生成交通需求包括建设项目生成的全部交通需求;改、扩建项目,新生成交通需求是指由项目改、扩建部分引起的新增交通需求。

(7)背景交通需求(background traffic demand)

交通影响评价范围内除去被评价建设项目新生成交通需求外的其他交通需求,包括起讫点均在评价范围外的通过性交通和评价范围内其他建设项目生成的交通需求。

(8)交通影响程度评价指标(indicators of traffic impact assessment)

衡量建设项目新生成交通需求对评价范围内交通系统影响的指标。

(9)长路段(long continuous road link)

长度超过 1.5km,交通几乎不受交叉口影响的道路区段。这里的长路段概念主要用于交通影响程度评价。建设项目邻近长路段时,不仅要评价其上下游交叉口的交通影响,还需要评价长路段的交通受到的影响。

(10)公共交通线路剩余载客容量

在一定服务水平下,建设项目周围的公共交通设施可以为建设项目提供服务的富余运力。

2.2 与交评相关的基本问题

2.2.1 建设项目分类

根据建设项目用地类型、建筑物使用功能和项目生成的交通需求特征对建设项目进行的分类。

1)交通影响评价应根据用地类型、建筑物使用性质和交通出行特征,对建设项目进行分类。

2)大类应依据用地类型和建筑物使用功能确定,划分为11个大类,大类划分的名称和代码应符合表2-1的规定。

2-1  建设项目大类划分

大类名称

住宅

商业

服务

办公

场馆与园林

医疗

学校

交通

工业

混合

其他

大类代码

T01

T02

T03

T04

T05

T06

T07

T08

T09

T10

T11

3)城市和镇应在大类基础上按照本地建设项目交通出行特征进行中类划分。中类划分宜符合表2-2的规定。

2-2  建设项目中类划分

大类

中类

说明

名称

代码

名称

代码

住宅

T01

宿舍

T011

集体宿舍、集体公寓等

保障性住宅

T012

廉租房、经济适用房等

普通住宅  

T013

普通商品房、居民楼等

高级公寓

T014

-

别墅  

T015

-

商业

T02

专营店

T021

专卖店、小型连锁店等

综合型商业

T022

综合型超市、百货商场、购物中心等

市场

T023

批发或零售市场、农集贸市场、菜市场等

服务

T03

娱乐

T031

娱乐中心、俱乐部、休闲会所、活动中心、迪厅等

餐饮

T032

餐馆、饭店、饮食店等

旅馆

T033

招待所、旅馆、酒店、宾馆、度假中心等

服务网点

T034

邮局、电信、银行、证券、保险等对外服务的分理处或营业网点

办公

T04

行政办公

T041

党政机关、社会团体的办公楼等

科研与企事业办公

T042

-

商务写字楼

T043

-

场馆与园林

T05

影剧院

T051

电影院、剧场、音乐厅等

文化场馆

T052

图书馆、博物馆、美术馆、科技馆、纪念馆等

会展场馆

T053

展览馆、会展中心等

体育场馆

T054

比赛性体育场馆、训练性体育场馆、综合性场馆、健身中心等

园林与广场

T055

城市公园、休憩广场、游乐场、旅游景区等

医疗

T06

社区医院

T061

诊所、社区医疗中心、体检中心等

综合医院

T062

各级各类综合医院、急救中心等

专科医院

T063

疗养院

T064

疗养院、养老院、康复中心等

学校

T07

高等院校

T071

-

中专及成教学校

T072

中专、职高、特殊学校及各类成人与业余学校

中学

T073

高中、初中

幼儿园和小学

T074

小学、幼儿园

交通

T08

客运场站

T081

交通客运站、客运枢纽等

货运场站

T082

货运站、货运码头、物流中心、仓储设施等

加油站

T083

-

停车设施

T084

社会停车场(库)、公共汽(电)车停车场(库)等

工业

T09

工业

T091

-

混合

T10

混合  

T101

使用功能包含了两种或两种以上建设项目大类的建设项目,如多功能综合楼、商住楼等

其他

T11

市政

T111

非交通类的市政设施,如水厂、变电站等

其他

T112

农业建筑、军事建筑等特殊建筑

4)城市和镇应在中类基础上按照建设项目的交通出行特征划分小类。

5)城市和镇应通过分类调查确定不同类别建设项目的出行率等出行参数。

2.2.2 交通影响评价启动阈值

(1)城市和镇应根据本地交通系统状况以及建设项目的分类、规模和区位,确定本地建设项目交通影响评价启动阈值。

(2)建设项目的规模或指标达到或超过规定的交通影响评价启动阈值时,应进行交通影响评价。

(3)建设项目报建阶段交通影响评价启动阈值应符合下列规定:

1)住宅(T01)、商业(T02)、服务(T03)、办公(T04)类建设项目,交通影响评价启动阈值的取值范围应符合表2-3的规定。

2-3  住宅、商业、服务、办公类建设项目交通影响评价启动阈值取值范围

城市和镇人口规模

(万人)

项目位置

建设项目新增建筑面积(万平方米)

住宅类项目

商业、服务、办公类项目

200

城市中心区

38

13

中心城区除中心区外的其他地区/卫星城中心区

510

25

其他地区

1020

410

100200

城市中心区

25

12

其他地区

38

25

<100

-

28

15

注:人口规模是指正在执行的城市和镇总体规划所确定的规划期末城镇人口规模;建设项目的建筑面积,有建筑设计方案时按总建筑面积计算,无建筑设计方案时按容积率建筑面积计算;在同一栏中,人口规模越大、交通问题越复杂的城市和镇,其阈值选取宜越低。

2)场馆与园林(T05)和医疗(T06)类建设项目的启动阈值应为:配建机动车停车泊位 100 个;

3)符合下列条件之一的建设项目,应在报建阶段进行交通影响评价:

——单独报建的学校(T07)类建设项目;

——交通生成量大的交通(T08)类建设项目;

——混合(T10)类的建设项目,其总建筑面积或指标达到项目所含建设项目分类(T01~T09,T11)中任一类的启动阈值;

——主管部门认为应当进行交通影响评价的工业(T09)类、其他(T11)类和其他建设项目。

(4)符合下列条件之一的建设项目,应在建设项目选址阶段进行交通影响评价:

1)特大城市的建设项目规模达到报建阶段启动阈值的5倍及以上,其他城市和镇达到3倍及以上;

2)重要的交通类项目;

3)主管部门认为需要在选址阶段也进行交通影响评价的建设项目。

(5)规划人口规模超过 1000 万的城市和国家历史文化名城可在本标准基础上确定更为严格的阈值标准。

(6)当相邻建设项目开发建成时间接近,出入口相近或者共用时,可对多个相邻建设项目合并进行交通影响评价。

2.2.3 交通影响评价范围

建设项目交通影响评价范围应根据城市和镇的规模、新生成的交通需求以及周边交通状况确定。

(1)报建阶段进行的建设项目交通影响评价,评价范围应符合下列规定:

1)有明确定量启动阈值的建设项目,其评价范围应按照表2-4划定;

表2-4  建设项目交通影响评价范围

建设项目规模指标与启动阈值之比(R)

交通影响评价范围

R<2

建设项目邻近的城市干路围合的范围

特大城市 2≤R<5,

其他城市和镇 2≤R<3

建设项目邻近的城市主干路或快速路围合的范围

特大城市 R≥5,

其他城市和镇 R≥3

建设项目邻近的第二条主干路或快速路围合的范围

2)单独报建的学校(T07)类建设项目、交通生成量大的交通(T08)类建设项目,其评价范围应为:建设项目邻近的第二条主干路或快速路围合的范围;

3)主管部门认为应当进行交通影响评价的工业(T09)、其他(T11)类和其他建设项目,其评价范围应为:建设项目邻近的城市主干路或快速路围合的范围。

(2)建设项目选址阶段的交通影响评价,应在上述第(1)条规定的基础上,根据建设项目的实际情况和周边交通状况,适当扩大评价范围。

(3)位于下列地区的建设项目,宜根据建设项目的具体情况和周边交通状况,适当调整评价范围:

1)城市中心区、历史文化保护区、风景名胜区、快速路出入口附近和交通枢纽周边等交通敏感地区,宜适当扩大评价范围;

2)城市和镇边缘地区,宜根据交通网络实际情况,调整评价范围;

3)当按照上述第(1)条划定的交通影响评价范围附近存在比较明显的交通瓶颈时,也应适当扩大评价范围,把交通瓶颈纳入影响评价范围。

2.2.4 交通影响评价年限

(1)建设项目交通影响评价年限应根据城市和镇的规模、建设项目的规模和分类确定。

(2)报建阶段进行的建设项目交通影响评价,评价年限应符合下列规定:

1)有明确定量启动阈值的建设项目,其评价年限应符合表2-5的规定;

2-5  建设项目交通影响评价年限

序号

建设项目规模指标与启动阈值之比

交通影响评价年限

1

特大城市<5,其他城市和镇<3

正常使用初年

2

特大城市≥5,其他城市和镇≥3

1 正常使用初年;

2 正常使用第5

注:当建设项目正常使用第 5 年超出了正在执行的城市和镇总体规划的目标年限时,宜用规划目标年限作为交通影响评价年限。

2)单独报建的学校(T07)类建设项目、交通生成量大的交通(T08)类建设项目,以及主管部门认为应当进行交通影响评价的工业(T09)、其他(T11)类和其他建设项目,其评价年限应为正常使用初年以及正常使用第 5 年。

(3)建设项目选址阶段进行的交通影响评价,评价年限应为建设项目正常使用初年以及城市和镇总体规划的目标年限。

(4)分期开发的建设项目,项目整体的评价年限除应符合上述规定外,还应该评价各分期投入正常使用的初年。

2.2.5 交通影响评价时段与评价日

交通影响评价时段的选择应符合下列规定:

(1)当建设项目新生成交通需求的高峰时段与背景交通高峰时段基本重合时,建设项目新生成交通需求高峰时段应为交通影响评价时段;

(2)当两者不重合时,建设项目新生成交通需求高峰时段与背景交通高峰时段均应为交通影响评价时段。

交通影响评价日的选择应符合下列规定:

(1)按工作日、非工作日分别叠加评价时段的建设项目新生成交通需求和背景交通需求,对交通系统最不利日应作为交通影响评价日;

(2)当难以判断时,应对工作日和非工作日分别进行评价。

5.《交通控制与仿真实验指导书》

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6.《汽车模拟驾驶与仿真实验指导书》

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7.《交通数据分析与处理实验指导书》

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8.《应急交通与物流系统优化》

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Chapter 3 The emergency evacuation optimization model and algorithm

3.1 Introduction

In recent years, with a variety of natural disasters and man-made disasters, emergency evacuation as an emerging research field is causing increasing attention of researchers [1-3]. As an important measure for the coping process of city emergency, the core problem of evacuation is as fast as possible to transfer the personnel at risk to safety or medical facility location. Effective evacuation planning is great significant for reducing disaster losses, and avoiding casualties or property loss. Many scholars have carried out relevant research on evacuation planning [4-10]. It is easy to find that most of the existing studies on evacuation routes regarded time as the major consideration, and the optimization objective of evacuation model is the minimum time required for completing evacuation. But in the actual emergency evacuation, due to the impact of disaster environment, evacuee may be in a high state of panic, thus affect the evacuees to find the right route and follow the evacuation instruction, and the physical strength of the evacuee would also be affected .Therefore, scientific and reasonable evacuation routes should be as short as possible, as simple as possible so that evacuees can more easily follow the evacuation instruction to find evacuation route.

According to route optimization, an important issue in evacuation planning, this chapter establishes the multi-objective optimization model for emergency evacuation route which can take into account the route length, travel time, route complexity, and improves the traditional genetic algorithm according to the characteristics of this model, then uses the improved genetic algorithm to solve it.

3.2 Problem description and multi-objective model

Route optimization problem for emergency evacuation can be described as follows. For the network G(V,E), V is the node set, E is the set of directed arcs between nodes. , ,V{v1,v2,…,vn},E{e1,e2,…,em}.For every arc in figure G e(vi,vj), . Let the starting point be v1, the end point be vn . Any arc is endowed with a 2-dimensional target vector , among which , stands for the length of arc , stands for the traffic time on arc . The route optimization for emergency evacuation is to choose a route with short distance, short traffic time, and small complexity in network G. Let decision variables be

Objective one: Minimize the route length.

Suppose the length of every arc is , the first objective function of the model is as follows.

                                              (3.1)

Objective two: minimize the evacuation time.

Suppose the travel time of every arc is , so the second objective function of the model is as follows.

                                             (3.2)

Objective three: minimize the route complexity.

People in an emergency may be in a high state of panic, which may seriously affect their psychological and behavior, affect the normal development of their physical strength, making emergency management more difficult. And therefore emergency psychology and behavior of group must be considered in issues related to emergency management. In the emergency evacuation, if the evacuation route is too long or too complex, it will increase the panic of evacuee and the probability of a weak body, thus affect their ability of following evacuation instruction to find the right evacuation route. Therefore, the evacuation route should be as short as possible, and should be as simple as possible to make it easier for evacuee to follow and carry out the evacuation. Research shows that most of the obstruction and panic have occurred in the conversion or transition between the arcs on the evacuation route in emergency evacuation. It follows that the less number of arcs contained in the evacuation route, the more simple and easier for evacuee to follow it. In summary, the route complexity of emergency evacuation can express the number of arcs included in the route, and the third objective function of model can be expressed as follows.

                                                    (3.3)

The constraints of above three objective functions are as follows.

                     (3.4)

                           (3.5)

               (3.6)

3.3 Improved genetic algorithm

3.3.1 Chromosome encoding and decoding

Priority-based chromosome encoding, that is to encode oriented information on the route, is used to build the route in chromosomes. To illustrate the principle, the schematic diagram of the priority encoding individual in the network of Figure 3.1 and its decoding route are shown in Figure 3.2. Suppose the gene arrangement of a genetic individual in a generation is shown in Figure 3.2. The adjacent relationship between directed network nodes in Figure 1 can see, the next node adjacent to the starting node(O=1)are 2,3,4; According to sequence relationships of the gene value in Figure 2,the priority 6 of node 4 is the highest in nodes 2,3,4. So choose node 4 as the next node of O node. Similarly, choose node 7 as the next node of node 4.And so on, until reach the end point (D=13), and get a full route (1,4,7,9,12,13).

Figure 3.1 The schematic diagram of directed network with thirteen nodes / twenty-four arc

Figure 3.2 The schematic diagram of priority-based encoding chromosome and its decoding route

3.3.2 Crossover

The priority index crossover operator ensures the inheritance and superiority of offspring on parents. The network in Figure 1 is an example. Let the priority decode route of the two individuals and in the network of Figure 1 be route and .The main steps of performing crossover operation for and is as follows.

Step1: Randomly select a tangent point p in the chromosome constituted by n (n = 13) genes, which is shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 The schematic diagram of randomly selecting a tangent point

Step 2: Cross and exchange the chromosome segment and in the right of p-point in the two individuals and ,then get two new individuals and , as shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 The schematic diagram of crossover the chromosome segment

Step3: According to gene value, ascending sort the exchanged chromosome segment and ,and establish the index mapping between the gene value of and which are sorted, shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5 The schematic diagram of index mapping between the gene value

Step 4: According to the index mapping between the gene value established in step 3, replace by bit and reconstruct the chromosome segment and in and ,produce a new generation of individuals and after crossover. The priority decode route corresponding to and are and ,shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6 The schematic diagram of operation principle for the priority index crossover operator

To sum up, the priority index crossover operator crosses and exchanges parent chromosomes segments, and further the priority index mapping to reconstruct the exchange chromosome segment of offspring is established, and ultimately generates the offspring that inherits genetic characteristics of parent and more excellent performance.

3.3.3 Mutation

The heuristic feasible operator is introduced to genetic mutation operator. Heuristic mutation operation generates new individuals through changing the relative positions of (adjacent coefficient)genes in existing individuals, the individuals component of the candidate sets N adjacent to existing individuals, and finally the best elements selected from N is the offspring produced by heuristic mutation[11]. The inland movement operator based on random research strategy [12] is also used to expand search range and ensure the search intensity.

3.3.4 Fuzzy logic control mechanism

If the quality of genetic individuals increase continuously in the continuous evolution of u generation population, correspondingly up-regulate the occurrence probability of mutation operation ,and down-regulate the occurrence probability of crossover and inland movement operation , that is to narrow search range, increase search intensity and search better solutions. Otherwise, up-regulate the occurrence probability of crossover and inland movement operation, down-regulate the occurrence probability of mutation operation, that is to expand search range [13,14].

3.3.5 Establishment of the fitness function

Adaptive weighted fitness distribution mechanism is used in this chapter [15-18].Let the optimization objective to algorithm be z1,z2,z3 , which respectively represent the three goals of the model.In the current populationP, the fitness function that individual v about the target i is fi(v).In the target space, positive and negative points z and z- is defined for the solution of p as follows:

                         (3.7)

                        (3.8)

Where,the extreme fitness and that v about z is defined as follows:

                 (3.9)

                (3.10)

According to formulas (3.7) (3.10), ultra-parallelogram defined by positive and negative points z and z- is the smallest ultra-parallelogram that contains all the current solution , fitness weight of target i that can get from (3.9), (3.10) is

                (3.11)

Integrate (3.9) (3.11)can get the weighted function about a given individual in the current population P, that is

      (3.12)

Thus, adaptive weighted fitness allocation method based on the weighted function and introduced adaptive penalty mechanism, compensates for defects in existing methods, while improves the quality of the distribution for genetic individual fitness.

3.3.6 Calculation steps

Step1: Let the supreme genetic algebra be 250, the individuals of every generation be 200;Let the initial crossover rate be 0.64, mutation rate be 0.2, and the selection rate be 0.16.

Step2: The adaptive weighted distribution mechanism of the fitness is used to calculate the fitness of each individual. And identify the worst and the best individual.

Step 3: Implement selection, crossover and mutation to the contemporary population, and the best individual is used to replace the worst individual in the contemporary population to generate the next new population.

Step 4: If the current algebra is greater than the set maximum algebra, the algorithm terminates and outputs the optimal route.


9.《交通运输与区域经济耦合分析及鲁棒优化》

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Chapter 3 Qualitative analysis of coupling relationship between transportation and regional economy

The transportation industry is an important industry in the national economy. The development of the transportation industry can promote the development of the regional economy, and the improvement of the economic level can also increase the demand for the transportation industry. The transportation and regional economic development are mutually reinforcing. The relationship between transportation and regional economic growth has become one of the hot topics in economic development research, and how to develop effective and reasonable transportation mechanism in China depends on the accurate grasp of the relationship between the two. It is of great practical value to study the relationship between transportation and economic growth and to determine the scale and direction of investment in transportation industry and realize the coordinated development of regional economy.

3.1 An analysis of the current situation of China's transportation economy development

3.1.1 Transportation is lagging behind in economic development

   With the continuous development of China's social economy, China's transportation industry has also been a greater development, but in general, the speed of transport economy is still lower than the pace of economic development. The cause of this phenomenon, mainly because of the following points [1-2]:

low level of transportation management.

China's transportation and transportation compared to the past, although there has been a significant improvement, but compared to some developed countries, there is still a big gap in China's transportation management process, the lack of appropriate technical management personnel, And the management system is not perfect, so that China's traffic management level is relatively low.

transportation equipment behind. China in the transport process, the transport equipment is still relatively backward, China as a large population, the traffic density itself is relatively large, in this context, the transport process will be less smooth, to a certain extent, restricts our traffic Transport fluency. In terms of transportation equipment, the use time of traffic equipment in some areas of our country is obviously higher than that of developed countries, and there are some hidden dangers, which also affect the development of China's transportation economy to a certain extent. It can be seen that the level of transportation management and the backwardness of transportation equipment in China have, to a certain extent, made China's transportation lag behind economic development.

3.1.2 The growth trend of the scale of transport network than the growth of transport vehicles

With the continuous development of China's social economy, the living standards of the people are constantly rising, in this case the demand for transport tools is also rising.

However, in view of the current development of our country, due to the slow growth rate of China's transport network, in this case, if the transport is still increasing, it is prone to road congestion and other issues, serious words may also cause Transportation and economic development speed of convergence of the phenomenon, which will be on China's social economic development adversely affected.

3.1.3 The structure of urban transport network is not reasonable

With the continuous development of social economy, the masses of life and production are inseparable from the transport industry, but China's large and medium-sized cities in the development process, its ubiquitous problem is the city transport network structure is not reasonable, backward transport equipment, traffic management Technology and other phenomena behind, and these problems are to some extent constrained the development of the transport industry. Which is unreasonable urban transport network structure of this problem, it is likely to cause serious urban road congestion and so on, which will be on the logistics industry transport efficiency caused by a more serious impact, so the transport industry if the development of a more slow, Which will restrict the development of China's economy to a certain extent.

3.1.4 The transportation industry for China's market economy system is not enough to adapt

For the time being, China's transportation industry in the development process, for China's market economic system is not enough to adapt, which to some extent makes the overall quality of the transport industry is not ideal. Therefore, the transportation industry in the development process, we must reform its economic system, so as to better adapt to China's market economic system, so as to better promote China's social economic development [3-4].

3.2 The role of transportation in promoting economic development

As an important part of China's economy, transportation economy will have a direct impact on China's economic development. The transportation economy itself is the basis of China's economic development and has an important influence on China's national economy.If the development of China's transportation economy is obviously lagging behind the development of China's national economy, it will restrict the national economy to a certain extent; but if the development of transportation economy is faster than the national economic development, it will promote the national Economic development [5-10].

3.2.1 A reasonable development and utilization of resources are achieved by transportation

Transportation for the social economic development has provided an important material basis to achieve the rational development and utilization of resources.The development of social and economic construction is inseparable from the scientific and rational development and deployment of natural resources. With the development of the transportation industry, the transportation efficiency of natural resources has been greatly improved, and the rational use of resources has been realized.At the same time, the developed transportation industry has also facilitated the exchange of social economic information, which has created the conditions for more rational allocation of natural resources. The region has promoted economic development by making full use of resources and developing resources.

3.2.2 Transport facilitates interregional economic exchanges

Efficient and safe transportation for the interregional frequent economic activities, information exchange to create the conditions, to a large extent contributed to the regional economic development.Through the construction of roads and improve the transport infrastructure, increased economic activities, the formation of stable and efficient transportation system. Modern transportation to achieve the various industrial base and regional economic development linked to improve the efficiency of information exchange and commodity exchange.In other words, if the lack of necessary transport infrastructure, it is bound to regional economic exchanges and cooperation have an impact, hindering the development of the national economy.

3.2.3 Transportation can improve the investment environment

People often say: "To get rich, first road."Visible, the importance of transport for economic development.From the construction of modern transportation, it can be seen that the economic development speed of the surrounding areas where the main traffic routes are built is significantly higher than that of the other areas with the same economic level as before the construction of the traffic routes.The reason is that with the development of the transport industry, for the capital investment and technology investment to create a good condition for the transport of raw materials and products to facilitate the increase in economic exchanges between the market, to a large extent improved The investment environment, and promote economic development.

3.2.4 Transportation facilitates the industrialization process and the economic urbanization development

According to the law of urban and rural economic development, the economic development of the surrounding areas of transportation is accelerating obviously, the economic level of urbanization is increasing continuously, the process of industrialization is accelerating and the proportion of non-agricultural accounts is increasing.According to the law of industrial production chain development, the objective fact of economic development in developed countries shows that the development of transportation industry is ahead of the objective law of economic development, mainly due to industrialization to promote economic development, capital investment and technology investment, economic market development and construction, raw material input and product output and so need to have a developed transport industry to provide protection.

3.3 The impact of economic development on transportation

3.3.1 Market economy development needs to support the transport

With the development of China's market economy, economic development factors such as logistics, capital flow, talent flow, information flow and so on have a profound impact on social and economic development, economic development, dependence on transportation is growing, Of the transport as a support.Developed transportation has increased the inter-regional economic activities and information exchange, human resources flow and cash flow has also been greatly increased, to achieve the complementary advantages of resources, contribute to the full use of resources to promote economic development.China in the "second Five-Year" plan, and vigorously increase the construction of transport, improve cargo traffic and traffic, increase car ownership, road freight bus turnover, the national port cargo throughput, coastal port container throughput and water transport Cargo turnover, is the inevitable trend of China's economic development. The ever-increasing demand for transportation is a manifestation of the rapid economic growth in China. The development of the economy has greatly promoted the development of the transportation industry and realized the innovation of transportation mode [10-13].

3.3.2 Urban and rural economic development changes the regional traffic conditions

China's basic national conditions are not balanced economic development, the development of the eastern region was significantly better than the western, urban development was significantly better than rural areas, there are significant differences from urban and rural income.However, with the development of China's economy, the process of urbanization is accelerating, the people's living standard has also been significantly improved, people in the backward areas of economic development or migrant workers to seek development, there are more and more enterprises to invest in agriculture and rural areas, to a large extent increased the transport between urban and rural areas.China attaches importance to rural construction and rural economic development, vigorously building a new socialist countryside, narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas, to complete the adjustment of rural industrial structure, transportation to promote the development of rural regional economy, improve rural transport infrastructure.

3.3.3 Economic development promotes the establishment of a sound transportation system

The establishment of advanced and perfect transportation system is the development trend of China's transportation industry, and the demand of economic development.At present, our country the construction of transportation industry must comply with the needs of the development of the economy, diversification of China's modes of transport, with a variety of characteristics of the national and global economic integration and access requirements,our country need to further improve the road transport, railway transport, aviation transport and water transport and other modes of transport, to achieve standardization and standardization of transport to ensure that the smooth transition of the transport process, give full play to the advantages of transport integration, improve the overall efficiency of transport.

3.4 Coupling interactive analysis of transport and economic development

3.4.1 Interactive analysis

The relationship between transportation and economic development is inseparable and closely linked, the two are mutual promotion and development and complement each other.Economic form plays a decisive role in transport demand, and transport demand has a direct impact on the choice of transportation mode.The impact of transportation on economic development is intuitive, and the underdeveloped traffic restricts the development of economy. Developed transportation can stimulate regional economic advantages and promote economic development.At the same time, the development of the economy also needs to the supporting transportation, so we must achieve the development of transport and economic development, and the two should promote each other and common development.

Between transportation and regional economic development, the change of each other will affect the other side. They interact with each other. As a complex system, transportation has a direct and indirect impact on the total level of regional economy, industrial structure and urbanization process through the basic attributes such as basic, network and externalities. The level of regional economic development is the main reason affecting the development of transportation.If the conditions are met, the two can form a mutual restraint and promotion of the feedback loop, so that the two sides interactive development, which will evolve to a higher level.Therefore, it can be said that the interaction mechanism between transport and regional economic development can also be called interactive coupling mechanism.Both promote each other, mutual "constraints". The development of the transport industry so that all aspects of social and economic production closely linked to ease the production and consumption of both in time and space contradictions, to improve the environment for economic development and promote regional economic development.At the same time, the level of regional economic development is lasting impetus of development of transport , such as improving the level of consumption will have a new transport demand, the increase in demand to expand the transport market to ensure the healthy development of the transport industry.On the contrary, when the transport capacity cannot meet the needs of regional economic development, its "bottleneck" constraints are very serious.It will lead to the disconnection of economic production, the time and space contradiction between consumption and production will be intensified, the level of market services will decline and unable to meet consumer demand.If the development of regional economic stagnation will also restrain the development of the transport industry, the stagnation of economic development led to the shortage of transport market demand, it can not give the development of transport industry lasting power, which will directly results in the development of transport level stagnation and service level rapid decline and go into a vicious circle.

The interaction between transport and economic growth is affected by different regions and periods.For different regions, the extent to which transport facilitates promote or hinder the role of economic development level is different. Some studies have found that for the economically developed regions, the role of transport in economic growth is greater than in those areas where the economy is underdeveloped because of economic development requires the support of transport infrastructure, if the transport facilities can not keep up with economic development needs, it will have restriction effect on regional economic growth.For different periods, the effect of transport on economic growth mechanism and the size is also different. In the early stage of economic development, the growth of transportation can promote the regional economic growth quickly, the growth of transport plays a certain role in promoting the division of labor and the exchange of goods. The transportation infrastructure has concentrated the elements. The development of transportation provides prerequisite for rapid economic growth, Thus, for some developing countries will generally choose to increase investment in transport infrastructure, the rapid development of the transport industry.For some developed countries, the domestic economy has developed to a certain extent, even if increasing investment in transport infrastructure, transportation on the promotion of economic growth should not be too obvious, so for these countries, as long as the transport to maintain a certain Of the level and the economic development to match, which will not hindered effect on economic growth can be.

Between transportation and many industrial sectors are closely linked, not until match transportation and regional economic development with the level and regional industrial structure and a greater extent to promote the increase in social benefits and regional economic growth. Lagging traffic infrastructure construction will have a great negative impact on regional economic growth, so at all stages of economic development, traffic infrastructure construction should always give priority to development, not only in the investment in transport infrastructure, but also in time on the appropriate priority. So the central government and local governments coordinate the relationship between transport and regional economy in order to achieve the optimization of the two.

The development trend of economic globalization has brought new opportunities for our economic development. In recent years, China's economy has been developing rapidly, but the overall transport is relatively backward and the system is imperfect state. Therefore, China must pay more attention to the construction of transportation to meet the needs of economic development. Economic development has continuously raised the demand for transportation and promoted the development of transportation, the development of transportation has created the conditions for economic development. The interactive relationship between transportation and economic development is mutual promotion, complementarity and common development, and the interaction between them is a cyclic process. In short, the transportation is an important premise for the protection of economic development, coordinated development between the two, mutual restraint and promotion, the coordinated development between the two to promote the stable development of the national economy has a vital role.

To sum up, the transport and regional economic development restrain and promote each other and constitute a multi-level feedback system, each link function to promote will affect the next link and promote its function enhanced, the promoting effect of successive pass, forming a network of mutual restraint and mutual promotion.

3.4.2 Coupling analysis

The interdependence, interaction and interaction mechanism of transportation and regional economy form the coupling system of this positive feedback loop, As shown in Figure 3.1, the change in each link will pass its feedback to the next or more links, and in turn, the multiple loops that form a benign interaction.

Figure 3.1 Coupling system of positive feedback loop for transportation and regional economy

Transportation - regional economic coupling system is mainly composed of transportation subsystem and regional economic subsystem that composed of two main body, in a specific space, the transport subsystem in the sub-domains play a transport link, between the regional economic subsystem the contact effect, the economy plays a role in the whole space ,influence each other, forming a complete cycle of interaction, and with the cycle of operation and development depends on transportation subsystem and the effect of coupling relationship between regional economic subsystem results. In other words, the transport in the process of adevelopment, increase the transportation link between subdomains, make its close degree increasing, and the passenger and cargo transportation form to realize all kinds of factors of production, means of production and product flow and circulation, and then to the cooperation and exchange of space between different subdomains propulsive role. Regional economy is based on the whole space, through the production of different subdomains features and differences produce economic ties, between subdomains on the complementary production advantage and resource sharing, and to strengthen the whole space region in industry collaboration and cooperation. On the contrary, the frequency of cooperation and communication between subregions increases, the degree of cooperation and cooperation is strengthened, and the development of regional economy and the promotion of transport capacity also play a positive role. Therefore, the coupling relationship between transportation and regional economy is that the spatial coordination between transportation condition and social economic activity is generated and developed in a particular space region.


Figure 3.2 Coupling analysis framework for transport corridor - economic zone system

In addition, the coupling relationship between transport and regional economy can be realized and interpreted through the temporal and spatial dimensions. In time level, transport capacity and traffic volume Settings often exceeds the current transport demand of regional economy, and thus the transportation in help transport demand increase at the same time also can promote the development of regional economy gradually, and the development of economy can also affect the future of transportation to the planning and construction. At the spatial level, the layout of the transportation in space affects the agglomerations and radiation on the space form of regional economy. The transportation can meet the different transportation demand in the regional economy through different modes of transport, and can actively mobilize the flow of people, material flow and information flow of the flow and diffusion, and promote the formation and development of regional economy.

The relationship between transport and regional economic coupling is the prerequisite between the two. On the basis of this connection, the two main bodies can better show the coupling relationship.

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